The internal Solidity error when an arithmetic operation fails, e.g. underflow and overflow.


Assume we have a basic vault contract that can store some token (wmdToken):

contract BasicVault {

    IERC20 public immutable wmdToken;   
    mapping(address => uint) public balances;

    event Deposited(address indexed from, uint amount);
    event Withdrawal(address indexed from, uint amount);

    constructor(IERC20 wmdToken_){
        wmdToken = wmdToken_;

    function deposit(uint amount) external {    
        balances[msg.sender] += amount;
        bool success = wmdToken.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), amount);
        require(success, "Deposit failed!"); 
        emit Deposited(msg.sender, amount);

    function withdraw(uint amount) external {      
        balances[msg.sender] -= amount;
        bool success = wmdToken.transfer(msg.sender, amount);
        require(success, "Withdrawal failed!");
        emit Withdrawal(msg.sender, amount);

We have a test function to ensure that a user is unable to withdraw tokens in excess of his deposit, like so:

    function testUserCannotWithdrawExcessOfDeposit() public {
        vault.withdraw(userTokens + 100*10**18);
  1. User has tokens of amount userTokens deposited in a Vault contract.
  2. User attempts to withdraw tokens of amount in excess of his deposits.
  3. This leads to an underflow error, resulting from: balances[msg.sender] -= amount; as it would evaluate into a negative value.

To catch the error "Arithmetic over/underflow", we insert vm.expectRevert(stdError.arithmeticError) just before the function call that is expected to result in an underflow.